Monday, 13 May 2013

The Great Pyramid at Giza

Abstract: The complexity, precision and size of the Great Pyramid are contrasted to the simplicity of pharaohs’ tombs. It is proposed that it is a plutonium mill. Its perfection of construction and choice of materials are compared against all other pyramids. The current history of plutonium production is related. The internal geometry of the pyramid is given correspondence to the process steps of breeding plutonium, separating plutonium from other material, disposing of radioactive waste, using water and producing hydroelectric power. The practical value of plutonium and the economic justification of the pyramid are discussed. Later attempts by the Egyptians to recreate the power and value of the pyramid are analyzed. Scientific methods for testing whether or not nuclear fission occurred within the pyramid are defined. 

The Great Pyramid at Giza has remained a complete mystery in modern times. When was it built? Who built it? Above all else, what is it? Conventional Egyptology declares that all pyramids were tombs for the pharaohs.

The sophistication, required technology and cost of the Great Pyramid conflict with the thought that it is simply a tomb. This level of effort for a burial place stretches common sense to the breaking point.

To quote Alan Alford (The Phoenix Solution) “Is it so crazy to suggest that the unique design of the Great Pyramid was a legacy from an earlier, more advanced culture? In my view, it is certainly much less crazy than continuing to believe that the Pyramid was constructed as a tomb for a dead king, and that he built this totally over-engineered and revolutionary wonder of the world with absolute perfection at the first attempt.”

His statement was the genesis of this paper.

It is proposed here that the Great Pyramid was a nuclear fission production mill, and it was a technical and financial success. It did not create energy but packaged energy within artificially created isotopes of plutonium. This hypothesis is not fantastic in the sense that it would be a physical impossibility but is fantastic only in the fact that it upsets the conventional history of man. The case for this claim is developed in the remainder of this paper. The approach is to drop preconceptions about religion and culture, and look upon the Great Pyramid as a business investment.

The Development of Nuclear Energy
The awareness and confirmation of the release of a vast amount of energy from nuclear fission was realized in the late 1930s. The Second World War was initiated at the same time. The entire realm of nuclear fission quickly became hostage to the war and was placed under military control. It was developed not in terms of a new source of energy for civilization but as a weapon of destruction: the fission bomb.

There were two routes to making bomb material. The first avenue involved the extraction of the fissionable isotope U-235 from uranium ore, which is almost entirely non-fissionable U-238. The natural U-235 concentration of 0.72% weight fraction had to be purified to 80% weight fraction. This concentration can be made to go supercritical, or in other words, a bomb detonation. This type of purification is extremely difficult and involves hundreds of stages of separation because the only difference between the two uranium isotopes is their very slight weight difference. This separation was considered so difficult, that an alternate route for making bomb material was also pursued during the war.

If a sufficient amount of uranium ore is placed in the correct geometry with a “moderator”, such as graphite or water, the neutrons released by U-235 can be used to create Plutonium 239 from U-238. Pu-239 is bomb material and is chemically distinct from uranium. It can be chemically separated from reacted uranium ore by solvent extraction. This procedure is immensely easier and simpler than U-235 purification. Furthermore, a great deal of Pu-239 can be produced from the minute fraction of U-235 in uranium ore. This route was pursued at Hanford, Washington.

The natural fission of U-235 releases two to three neutrons which have high velocity. If these neutrons are allowed to pass through graphite or water, collisions with the nuclei lower the speed of the neutrons and reflect them back into the uranium ore where they can cause more fission of U-235 and can be absorbed by U-238 nuclei. This absorption creates Pu-239. The Pu-239 can also undergo fission from returning neutrons, which releases two to three neutrons. These neutrons can be reflected back into the uranium ore to create even more plutonium. The capacity for a rapid geometric growth in plutonium is “unlimited” and there can be a runaway reaction if the system is not carefully controlled. Control rods, which absorb neutrons, can be inserted into the reactor core to rapidly reduce the population of neutrons. This control material not only can prevent a runaway reaction but it can be used to bring the entire fissioning process to a halt. Alternatively, if the graphite or water is suddenly removed from close proximity to the uranium ore, the fissioning process will also come to a halt.

If a nuclear core is run improperly and undergoes a runaway reaction, the energy release will physically blow the reactor apart and the runaway reaction will stop. Such an event does not measure up to a fission bomb detonation by several orders of magnitude. It does constitute a conventional size thermal explosion and creates a radioactive mess. This happened at Chernobyl, which used graphite.

If a nuclear core that was set up to create bomb grade plutonium is run too long, other isotopes of plutonium will be created. If their concentration reaches 7% or more of all plutonium, then the plutonium cannot be used for a fission bomb. The other plutonium isotopes interfere with the growth in neutron population being created by Pu-239 and the material cannot go supercritical.  

However, this mix of plutonium isotopes can be used to produce energy for civilized use.

This fact is the technical and economic basis for breeder reactors. Such a reactor produces an amount of useful energy and also creates more nuclear fuel than it consumes. Through the breeding process, the amount of useful nuclear fuel within U-238 ore can be increased almost one hundred times. This process constitutes a highly profitable venture, if properly designed.

Because plutonium was used in two of the first three fission bombs, which were used in war, the public perception of plutonium is limited to its use in fission bombs. It is not perceived as an energy source and is considered to be evil. In actuality, plutonium is inanimate; does not possess the capacity of morality, and cannot make decisions. Its behavior is completely predictable. Commercial nuclear reactors are officially powered by uranium. In reality, one third of the energy production comes from plutonium, because it is made and consumed in the reactor core.

At Hanford, Washington, nine nuclear breeder reactors were built in succession for the sole purpose of making bomb grade plutonium. About 15 monstrous process plants were also built to process the spent reactor cores, and extract and purify plutonium, and segregate radioactive waste. The production of energy was a secondary issue. The operating lifespan of these units was short; none being longer than 21 years. Although graphite was used at Hanford, water can also be used as a moderator. In addition, a flow through of water around the reactor can take away the released energy in the form of hot water or steam. This limits the temperature of the reactor and prevents a “meltdown”

Its fascinating story, read on 

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